YAŞLILARDA YALNIZLIK ve YAŞAM KALİTESİ

Cüneyt Çam, Emrah Atay, Burhanettin Işıklı

Öz


Yaşlanma yaşam evresinin sonuna yaklaştıkça her bireyin karşı karşıya kaldığı bedenin fonksiyonel kapasitesinde azalma ve işlevlerde azalmayla karakterize durdurulması mümkün olmayan ve fiziksel, psikolojik, sosyal boyutları ile değerlendirilmesi gereken bir süreç olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Dünyada 65 yaş ve üzeri nüfus, 2010 yılında 524 milyon (%8) olup, 2050 yılında 1.5 milyar (%16) olması beklenmektedir. Türkiye’de ise 2012’de 5,7 milyon (%7.5) olan yaşlı nüfusun 2023’te 8,6 milyon (%10.2), 2050’de ise 19,5 milyon (%20.8) olacağı tahmin edilmektedir. Gerek dünya gerekse ülkemizdeki yaşlı nüfusta meydana gelen artış “yaşlı sağlığı” ve bunun önemli bir bileşeni olan ‘‘yaşlılarda yaşam kalitesi’’ kavramını oldukça önemli bir noktaya taşımaktadır. Bu durum birçok disiplinin yaşlılık konusuna olan ilgisini arttırmakla birlikte yaşlı sağlığını daha sık gündeme getirmektedir. Tüm dünyada giderek önem kazanan, yaşlı bireylerin sağlıklı ve başarılı yaşlanmaları, yaşam kalitelerinin yükseltilmesi, toplumla bütünleşmeleri ve toplumla uyumlu olarak yaşamaları konusundaki girişimler giderek artmaktadır. Başarılı bir yaşlanma modeli için üç özellik olarak hastalık ve sakatlıktan kaçınma, yüksek fiziksel ve bilişsel işlevsel kapasitenin sürdürülmesi ve hayata aktif katılımın gerekli ön şartlar olduğu ileri sürülmüştür. Yaşlılıkta yaşam kalitesi sorularına sağlıkla ilgili konular ve sorunlar egemen olmuştur. Bu sebeple, yaşlanan nüfusun maliyeti ve yaşlı bireylerin hizmetlere bağımlı olmadan kendi kendilerine nasıl bir hayat süreceğine dair endişelerde bedensel sağlık sorunları öncelikli olmuştur. Halbuki özellikle yaşlılarda ruhsal sağlık sorunları ayrı bir öneme sahiptir. Bunlardan biri olan yalnızlık duygusu günümüzde nispeten üzerinde daha az durulan konulardan birisi olup yaşlılarda sık görülmekte doğrudan ya da dolaylı sağlık çıktılarına neden olmaktadır. Bu bakımdan, kişinin sosyal ilişki ağının, arzu ettiğinden daha dar ya da daha az doyumlu algılamasına bağlı yaşanan bir duygu olarak ifade edilen yalnızlık da yakından incelenmelidir.

Anahtar kelimeler: Yaşlılık, Yalnızlık, Yaşam kalitesi, Sağlıklı yaşlanma

LONELINESS and QUALITY of LIFE IN ELDERLY

Abstract:

Aging is defined as a unstoppable process that in which an individual with a decrease in the functional capacity of the body, a reduction in functionalities and it has to be discussed with its  physical, psychological and social dimensions. The population of 65 years and older people in the world is expected to be 524 million (8%) in 2010 and 1.5 billion (16%) in 2050. The elderly population in Turkey in 2023 is suggested to increase from 5.7 million to 8.6 million, while in 2050 is estimated to be 19.5 million. The increase in the elderly population in the world and our country highlights the "elderly health", "quality of life in old age". The initiatives like the healthy and successful aging of older people, the upgrading of their quality of life, their integration into society and their lives in harmony with society gains importance all over the world. Three prerequisites for a successful aging model are the avoidance of illness and disability, the maintenance of high physical and cognitive functional capacity, and active participation in life. Health-related problems especially physical problems dominate concerns about quality of life in old age. For this reason, the cost of the aging population and the anxieties about how an old person would live without being dependent on services have always been priorities. But there is a missing point that the mental health is also important when we talk about older people. Loneliness, which is a feeling that is felt due to the perceived lack of satisfaction of the social network is one of the important psychological problem and causes direct or indirect physical or other mental health outcomes. At present, the loneliness is a subject that not given importance enough and has to be evaluated carefully for elderly health.

Key words:  Elderly, Loneliness, Quality of Life, Healthy ageing


Tam Metin:

ARTICLE 6 (50-67)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.2626/estüdamhsd.v3i2.87

DOI (ARTICLE 6 (50-67)): https://doi.org/10.2626/estüdamhsd.v3i2.87.g93

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